RECURSOS ELEMENTALES DE INVESTIGACIÓN
BASIC RESEARCH TOOLS
by
David Ribera-Nebot
 


 

"La ciencia es un mito, sólo que es el mito más hermoso, el único generalizable a toda la especie y quizás el más digno de respetarse. La ciencia es un mito, y cuando pretende decir que está más allá del mito está mintiendo. La ciencia es la humildad en la búsqueda de lo verdadero y en cuanto pierda esa humildad ya no es más que una forma de embaucamiento".

Antonio Escohotado

 

A) Resúmenes en inglés basados en apuntes de investigación del departamento de Kinesiology - HPER -
de Indiana University, Bloomington (1994-1996):

- Sources of Knowledge

- Research Designs

- Research Reports

- Research Problems

- Literature Review

- Designing Quantitative Research

- Descriptive Statistics

- Data Collection Techniques

- Nonexperimental Research Designs

- Experimental and Single-Subject Designs

- Statistics

- Designing Qualitative Research

- Ethnographic Research

- Analytical Research

- Qualitative Data Analysis

- Evaluation Research

- Policy Analysis

- Guidelines for Research Proposals

 

›› Traducción y Resumen de "Thesis Outline Guide" · Kinesiology Department IU

›› Errores Comunes en Informes/Memorias de Investigación
   
(Extraído de "Thesis Outline Guide" IU 1991)

›› Propuesta de AutoEvaluación de los Contenidos de un trabajo de Investigación

 

B) Links a fuentes varias sobre recursos para la investigación:

Universia - Red de Universidades
Institutos Universitarios, Recursos, Bases de Datos, Convocatorias y Planes de Investigación, Tesis, Redacción Científica, Servicios Universitarios, Premios, Otras Instituciones y Centros.

PubMed
PubMed comprises more than 20 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

ACSM
American College of Sports Medicine

ECSS
European College of Spot Science

European Educational Research Association
EERA was founded to encourage collaboration amongst educational researchers in Europe.

ERIC - Education Resources Information Center
ERIC - is an online digital library of education research and information. ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Google Académico
Buscador google de bibliografia científica y acadèmica.

Free Full PDF
Over 80 million of free scientific articles, patents, theses and posters in PDF

 

C) Algunos principios para el tutor de investigación principiante:

Filosofía del Tutor de Investigación del Estudiante de Bachillerato

Procesos Básicos en el Desarrollo de una Investigación

Modelo de Índice de Proyecto de Investigación

Modelo de Índice de Memoria de Investigación

 

D) Unos libros para las consultas de base:

FUNDAMENTOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN

Best J.W. (1982). Como Investigar en Educación (9a Edición). Madrid: Ediciones Morata S.A. Traducción del original "Research in Education" (Prentice Hall Inc., 1ª Edición: 1961).

Thomas, J.R. & Nelson, J.K. (1990). Research Methods in Physical Activity (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Schumacher, S. & McMillan, J.H. (1993). Research in Education: A Conceptual Introduction (3rd ed.). New York: HarperCollins College Publishers.

FUNDAMENTOS DE ESTADÍSTICA APLICADA

Pagano, R.R. (1994). Understanding Statistics in the Behavioral Sciences (4th ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.

FUNDAMENTOS DE EDICIÓN

American Psychological Association (2010). Publication Manual, 6th Edition. Washington: APA.

¿Qué es el Comentario Crítico?

 

E) Algunos ejemplos de abstracts y posters:

Ejemplo - Abstract/Resumen
Ejemplo 1 - Abstract · Ejemplo 1 - Poster
Ejemplo 2 - Abstract · Ejemplo 2 - Poster
Ejemplo 3 - Abstract · Ejemplo 3 - Poster
Ejemplo 4 - Abstract · Ejemplo 4 - Poster
Ejemplo 5 - Abstract · Ejemplo 5 - Poster
Ejemplo 6 - Abstract · Ejemplo 6 - Poster
Ejemplo 7 - Abstract · Ejemplo 7 - Poster
Ejemplo 8 - Abstract

 

F)

*) ››› Traducción y Resumen de "Thesis Outline Guide" · Kinesiology Department IU · June 1991

 

*) ›› Errores Comunes en Informes/Memorias de Investigación
   
(Extraído de "Thesis Outline Guide" IU 1991)

 

*) ›› Propuesta de AutoEvaluación de los Contenidos de un Trabajo de Investigación

 

*) Ejemplo de Portada del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertación (a)

*) Ejemplo de Portada del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertacion (b)

*
) Ejemplo de Portada del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertación (c)

*) Ejemplo de Portada del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertación (d)

 

*) Ejemplo de Tabla de Contenidos en Investigación Experimental y "Survey" de la Memoria del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertación

*) Consideraciones de la Tabla de Contenidos en Investigación Histórica de la Memoria del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertación

*) Ejemplo de Tabla de Contenidos de una Tesis Rusa típica del´ámbito del Movimiento

 

G)

Scientific writing in English with an emphasis for a successful abstract submission, primarily targeting non-native speakers by Dr. Hilary Glasman-Deal (Imperial College in London, United Kingdom):

Presentation

Vocabulary - Introduction

Vocabulary - Results

Vocabulary - Discussion

Oral Presentation

Scientific Poster



 

 

 



SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE

- Beliefs

- Tradition

- Personal

- Experience

- Logic

- Intuition

 

- RESEARCH

§         Process for developing knowledge:

            Identify Problem

            Conduct Empirical Studies

            Replicate Studies

            Synthesize Research

            Adoption and Evaluation

§         Process

-Select problem

-Review literature

-Select specific hypothesis

-Collect data

-Analyze data

-Interpret findings

-State conclusions

§         Characteristics

-Objective

-Precise

-Verifiable

-Explanatory

-Empirical

-Logical

-Probabilistic

§         Limitations

-Human subjects

-Public institutions

-Complexity of research problem

-Methodological dificulties

§         Functions of Basic Research

-Concerned with knowing, explaining, and predicting natural and social phenomena

-Starts with theory, principle or generalization

-Tests theories

§         Functions of Applied Research

-Conducted in the field

-Deals with practical problems

§         Functions of Evaluation Research

-Assesses merit and worth of particular practices

 

 


RESEARCH DESIGNS

QUANTITATIVE

  • Experimental

Researcher manipulates independent variable to investigate cause-and-effect relationship between independent and dependent variable.

-True experimental

-Quasi-experimental

-Single-subject

  • Nonexperimental

Researcher describes things that have occurred, examines relationships without suggesting causation, or explores causal relationships among variables that cannot be manipulated.

-Descriptive

-Correlational

-Survey

-Expost facto

QUALITATIVE

  • Ethnographic Analytical

Researcher describes behaviors as they occur in the natural envionment.

-Concept

-Historical

-Legal

 

Data Collection Techniques

  • Quantitative Designs

Use numbers to describe or measure the results.

-Structured observations

-Standardized interviews

-Tests

-Questionnaires

-Unobtrusive measures

  • Qualitative Designs

Use words to collect the data.

-Ethnographic observations and interviews

-Documents

 


RESEARCH REPORTS

QUANTITATIVE

  • Standard format with:

Abstract

Introduction

Statement of Research Problem

Review of Literature

Statement of Research Hypotheses/Questions

Methodology

Results

Discussion, Implications, Conclusions

References

QUALITATIVE

  • Diverse format with:

Introduction

Methodology

Findings and Interpretation

Conclusions

 


RESEARCH PROBLEMS

SOURCES

-Casual observation

-Deductions from theory

-Related literature

-Current social and political issues

-Practical situations

-Personal experience

SIGNIFICANCE

Determined by if they:

-Provide knowledge

-Test theories

-Increase generalizability

-Extend empirical understandings

-Advance methodology

-Focus of current issue

-Evaluate specific practice or policy

-Are exploratory studies

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Specifies the focus, educational, context, importance, and the frameworks for reporting the findings.

  • In Quantitative Research

-Use deductive logic

-Identify population, variables, and logic of the problem

-Write statement clearly and concisely

-Write statement as research purpose, questions, or hypotheses before data is collected

    • Research Purpose

-Suggests the design of the study

    • Research Questions

-Descriptive

-Relationship

-Difference

    • Research Hypotheses

Should:

-State expected relationship or difference between two or more variables

-Be testable

-Offer tentative explanation

  • In Qualitative Research

-Use inductive logic

-State problem initially in planning for the study

-Write statement as research purpose or questions

-Reformulate problem statement during data collection

    • Research Questions

-Ethnographic

-Historical

-Legal

  • Assessment of

Evaluate in terms of specific criteria related to:

-General research problem

-Significance of the problem

-Research questions and hypotheses in quantitative research

-Research questions in qualitative research

 


  LITERATURE REVIEW

FUNCTIONS

-Defines and limits problem

-Places study in perspective

-Avoids replication

-Selects methods and measures

-Relates findings to previous research

Suggests further research

STANDARDS OF ADEQUACY

Judged adequate by 3 criteria:

-Selection of literature

-Criticism of literature

-Summary and Interpretation

META-ANALYSIS

Uses statistical techniques to synthesize results of prior independently conducted studies

Steps:

-Formulate research synthesis problem

-Collect data

-Evaluate data

-Analyze and interpret data

-Public presentation

STEPS IN LITERATURE REVIEW

  1. Analyze problem statement
  2. Search and read secondary literature
  3. Select appropriate index
  4. Identify descriptors
  5. Conduct manual/computer search
    1. analyze research problem
    2. determine type of search
    3. select database
    4. select descriptors
    5. conduct literature search
    6. analyze printout
  6. Read relevant primary literature
  7. Organize notes
    1. abstract articles on index cards
    2. organize literature by developing appropriate classification system
  8. Write review

Quantitative Research:

-Organize by sections (introduction, critical review, summary)

-Organize criticism by dates, variables/treatments, research designs and methods, general to closely related literature, or combination of these

Qualitative Research:

-Conduct preliminary literature review

-Continually review literature during data collection and analysis

-Alternative presentations of literature (a) separate discussions (b) integration within text

 


  DESIGNING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

PURPOSE OF RESEARCH DESIGN

To provide a credible answer to a research question.

PROCEDURES

Must be presented in detail and specify:

-when, where, and how data will be collected

-experimental treatment (where applicable)

-procedures used to control bias

DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

Questionnaires

Standardized Interviews

Tests

Standardized Observations

Inventories

Rating Scales

Unobtrusive Measures

            Basic Principles Common to All Methods:

§         Test Validity

Inferences made on the basis of scores from an instrument must be appropriate, meaningful, and useful

§         Test Reliability

Refers to consistency of measurement

VALIDITY OF DESIGN

§         Internal Validity

Refers to extent of control over extraneous variables

§         External Validity

Refers to generalizability of results

Two general categories:

      Populations external validity

      Ecological external validity

SUBJECTS

Subjects are:

  1. individuals who participate in the study
  2. referred as the sample
  3. selected from a larger group called the population

§         Sample Size

Determined by the type of research, research hypotheses, financial constraints, importance of results, number of variables studied, methods of data collection, and degree of accuracy needed.

§         Methods of Selection

    1. Nonprobability sampling

-using available subjects

    1. Probability sampling

-using following procedures to select unbiased sample:

-simple random sampling

-systematic sampling

-stratified random sampling

-cluster sampling

 


DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Indices that summarize or characterize a larger number of observations

APPROPRIATE STATISTICS determined by:

  • Purpose of the research
  • Measurement Scale
    • Nominal._ numbers represent categories
    • Ordinal._ numbers indicate rank
    • Interval._ numbers represent equal intervals
    • Ratio._ numbers represent equal units from zero

TYPES

  • Measures of Central Tendency

Each provides a numerical index of the typical score in the distribution

Mean._ average of all scores

Median._ point that divides distribution in half

Mode._ score that occurs most frequently

Relationship among mean, median, and mode:

a)       Normal distribution: all indicates the same

b)       Skewed distributions: mean lies closest to tail, mode lies furthest from tail, median lies between mean and mode

  • Measures of Variability

Indicates spread of scores from the mean of the distribution

Range._ difference between highest and lowest score

Standard deviation._ indicates average variability of scores

Standard scores._ have constant normative or relative meaning

  • Measures of Relationship

Indicates the relationship between variables

Scatter plot – graphic representation – correlation coefficient - numerical

  • Graphic Portrayal: provides pictorial representation of group data
    • Frequency distribution._ indicates number of times each score was attained
    • Histogram & Frequency Polygon._ pictorial display of frequency data

 


DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURES USED OT JUDGE OVERALL
QUALITY AND APPROPRIATENESS

  • Validity

Refers to the extent to which inferences made from the results are appropriate and meaningful

Four Components:

-Content-related

-Concurrent criterion-related

-Predictive criterion-related

-Construct related

  • Reliability

Refers to the consistency of measurement

Types:

-Stability

-Equivalence

-Equivalence and Stability

-Internal Consistency

TESTS

  • Cognitive

1.       Standardized._ provide uniform procedures

2.       Norm-referenced._ compare individuals to norming group

3.       Aptitude._ predict future performance

4.       Achievement._ measure prior learning

5.       Performance assessment._ measures proficiency by observing student perform skills of interest

  • Noncognitive

Includes inventories that measure traits such as interests, attitudes, self-concept, values, personality, and beliefs

QUESTIONNAIRES

Are economical, can assure anonymity, and permit use of standardized questions

  • Steps:

-justify use

-define objectives

-write questions and statements

 (items can be scaled, ranked, or have open or closed form)

-decide on general and item format

-pretest questionnaire

INTERVIEW SCHEDULES

Oral questions and answers

  • Steps:

-construct interviews schedule

 (questions may be structured, semi-structured, or unstructured

-pretest questions

-remove or rephrase leading questions

-consider characteristics of interviewer that may influence responses

-decide on how responses will be recorded

UNOBTRUSIVE MEASURES

Provide data that are uninfluenced by an awareness of the subjects that they are the participants

  • Major types:

-physical traces

-archives

-simple observation

-contrived observation

OBSERVATION SCHEDULES

Recording of naturally occurring behavior

  • Steps:

-justify observational method

-define precisely what will be observed

-decide how behaviors will be recorded

 (duration, frequency count, interval recording, continuous observation, time sampling)

-train observers

 


NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

Concerns with current state of something.

  • Developmental Studies:

Investigate changes of subjects over time.

Can be longitudinal or cross-sectional.

CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH

  • Simple Relationship Studies:

Correlation coefficient calculated from scores on two variables.

  • Predictive Studies:

-The criterion variable is predicted by a prior behavior.

-Several predictor variables are used to make a more accurate prediction.

  • Interpreting Correlational Research:

-Correlation does not infer causation.

-Spurious correlations over- o under- represent actual relationship between two variables.

-Correlation coefficient expresses degree of covariance between variables.

-Coefficient of determination expresses common variance between variables.

SURVEY RESEARCH

Uses questionnaires or interviews to describe the characteristics of populations.

  • Steps:

1.       Define purpose and objectives

2.       Select resources and target population

3.       Choose and develop techniques for gathering data

4.       Determine method of sampling

5.       Write letter of transmittal

6.       Send follow-up letters to subjects who have not responded

7.       Check nonrespondents

EX POST FACTO RESEARCH

Investigates whether pre-existing conditions caused differences in groups.

  • Steps:

1.       Formulate research problem

2.       Identify plausible rival hypotheses

3.       Find and select groups that will be compared

4.       Collect and analyze data including data on factors that may constitute rival hypotheses

 


EXPERIMENTAL AND SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGNS

CHARACTERISTICS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

            -Statistical equivalence of subjects in different groups.

            -Two groups or conditions that can be compared are needed.

            -Manipulation of independent variable.

            -Measurement of dependent variables in numerical terms.

            -Use of inferential statistics.

            -Control of extraneous variables.

SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGNS

  • a) A-B: target behavior observed during baseline (A) and treatment (B) phases to determine effect of treatment.
  • b) A-B-A: same as (a) with addition of second baseline (A) phase.
  • c) Multiple-baseline: treatment replicated across two or more students, behaviors, or settings.

PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

  • a. One-group posttest only: effect of treatment given to one group is observed.
  • b. One-group pretest-posttest: group is observed before and after implementing treatment.
  • c. Posttest only with nonequivalent groups: similar to (a) with one addition. A control group receives no treatment or a different one.

TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

Subjects are randomly assigned to experimental and control groups.

§         a. Pretest-posttest control group: experimental group(s) receive(s) pretest, treatment, posttest; control group receives pre-and posttest.

§         b. Posttest only control group: experimental group(s) receive(s) treatment, posttest; control group receives posttest only.

QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

No random assignment of subjects

§         a. Nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group: experimental group receives pretest, treatment, posttest; control group receives pre- and posttest.

§         b. Time-series: one group of subjects is measured repeatedly before and after treatment.

THREATS TO VALIDITY

  • Threats to Internal Validity

May include: history, selection, statistical regression, pretesting, instrumentation, subject attrition, maturation, diffusion of treatment, experimenter effects, treatment replications, subject effects, statistical conclusion.

  • Threats to External Validity

May include two general categories: population and ecological.

 


STATISTICS

The researcher employs an inferential statistics test to determine the probability that the null is untrue. Level of significance indicates the chance that it is wrong to reject the null.

-Inferential Statistics: Are used to make inferences about populations based on data from samples.

-Probability: A scientific way of stating the degree of confidence in predicting something.

-Null Hypothesis: A statement of no relationship between two or more variables.

-Level of Confidence: Expressed as a decimal e.g., .01, .05.

STATISTICAL TESTS

NONPARAMETRIC

Statistical procedures used when the assumptions necessary to use parametric tests are violated.

  • Chi-Square: Used with nominal data to test relationships between frequency of observations in categories of independent variables.
  • Median Test
  • Mann-Whitney U Test
  • Sign Test
  • Wilconxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test
  • Kruskal-Wallis
  • One-way Anova of ranks

PARAMETRIC

Statistical test that assume normality in the:

-population

-homogeneity of variance

-interval or ratio scale data

  • T-Test

Used to compare means of 2 groups to determine the probability that the corresponding population means are different.

    • Independent Samples T-Test

Used to compare means of 2 groups that have no relationship to each other.

    • Dependent Samples T-Test

Used to compare means of 2 groups in which subjects are paired or matched in some way.

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
    • One-way ANOVA: used to compare 2 or more sample means on one independent variable.
    • Factorial ANOVA: used to compare 2 or more sample means on 2 or more independent variables.

Two-way or three-way ANOVA denotes the exact number of independent variables.

  • Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

Two major purposes:

1.       To adjust initial group differences statistically on one or more variables that are related to the dependent variable but uncontrolled.

2.       To increase the likelihood of finding a significant difference between group means.

  • Multivariate Analyses

A family of statistics used when there are more than one independent variable, more than one dependent variable or both.

  • Post Hoc Comparisons

Statistical tests (e.g., Fisher’s LSD. Tukeys HSD, Scheffe’s Test) that are used with pairs of means.

            Usually conducted after a test of all means together.

 


DESIGNING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

ETHICS

Ethical principles are similar to those of quantitative research.

PURPOSEFUL SAMPLING STRATEGIES

  • Site selection
  • Comprehensive sampling
  • Maximum variation sampling
  • Network sampling
  • Sampling by case type

PHASE OF DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSES

1.       Planning

2.       Beginning data collection

3.       Basic data collection

4.       Closing data collection

5.       Completion

CASE STUDY DESIGN

Researcher selects one phenomenon to understand in depth

  • Purposes:
    • To develop concept or model
    • To describe and analyze a situation, event, or process
    • To evaluate a program
    • To identify policy issues
    • To contribute to large scale research projects
    • Used as a precursor to quantitative research

INTERNAL VALIDITY

  • Threats include:
    • history
    • maturation
    • observer / researcher effects
    • selection
    • attrition
    • alternative explanations
  • Strategies to Enhance Internal Validity
    • lengthy data collection period
    • participants language
    • field research
    • disciplined subjectivity

EXTERNAL VALIDITY

  • Threats are effects which limit comparability and translatability and include:
    • selection
    • setting
    • history
    • theoretical

RELIABILITY

  • In Design: Reliability is enhanced by making explicit 6 aspects:
    • researcher role
    • informant selection
    • social context
    • data collection and analyses strategies
    • analytical premises
  • In Data Collection: Strategies used to reduce threats to reliability:
    • verbatim accounts
    • low inference descriptors
    • multiple researchers
    • mechanically recorded data
    • participant researcher
    • member checking
    • participant review
    • negative cases

 


ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH

FORESHADOWED PROBLEMS

  • Anticipated research problems which will be reformulated during data collection
  • Reflect naturalistic discovery-orientation, and the initial conceptual framwork
  • Indicate focus of data collection strategies

ENTRY INTO THE FIELD

Involves the following

1.       Site selection

2.       Mapping the field: social, spacial and temporal maps

3.       Selection of interviewers

4.       Choosing the research role

a.       observer-participant

b.       participant-observer

c.       interviewer

DATA COLLECTION STRATEGIES

  • PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
    • On-site observation: researcher is present in the field or site for an extensive time.
    • Prolonged Data Collection: data is collected until naturalistic event ends or is no longer relevant.
    • Obtaining people’s perceptions of reality expressed in their actions as feelings, thoughts, and beliefs.
    • Corroborating field observations.
    • Observing and recording phenomena salient to the foreshadowed problems. Use of field notes and summary observations.
  • INTERVIEWING
    • Selecting type of interview
      • informal conversational
      • interview guide approach
      • standardized open-ended
      • key-informant
      • career and life history
    • Determining content of questions, writing quality questions, and deciding their sequence
    • Taking into account factors that influence an interview session-duration, number of interviews, settings, identity of the individuals, and informant style.
    • Deciding how responses will be recorded-handwritten, or tape recorded, or both.
    • Typing handwritten records, or transcribing tapes.
  • DOCUMENT AND ARTIFACT COLLECTION
    • Selecting type of document or artifact
      • personal documents
      • official documents
      • objects
      • erosion measures
    • Analyzing and interpreting documents and artifact collection

 


ANALYTICAL RESEARCH

CHARACTERISTICS

1.       Topics of analysis: historical, legal, policy

2.       Types of sources: documents, oral testimonies, and relics

3.       Search for facts: requires locating primary and secondary sources

4.       Analytical generalizations and explanations: inductive logic applied to generalizations to suggest causal explanations

5.       Kinds of analysis: conceptual, interpretative, comparative, and universal analyses, edition, descriptive narration.

USES OF

1.       Provides knowledge and explanation to the past

2.       Clarifies present legal and policy discussions

3.       Creates a sense of common purpose about education in the society

TYPES OF ANALYTICAL RESEARCH

  • Educational Concepts

Focuses on the meaning of a concept (e.g., education, literacy, knowledge) by describing the generic meaning, the essential meanings, and the appropriate usage of the concept.

Researcher uses 3 types of analysis:

-generic

-differential

-conditions

  • Educational Historical and Policy Events

Focuses on biographies, movements, institutions, practices, analysis and distribution of power, policy-making processes, and policy content changes.

Researcher:

1.       Identifies topic and develops problem statement.

2.       Locates primary and secondary sources in documents and oral testimonies.

3.       Looks at the relationship between facts and interprets them as generalizations. Synthesizes generalizations and provides causal explanations or conclusions.

  • Educational Case Law

Focuses on legal issues to discover what is the law in specific situations

Researcher:

1.       Selects a problem in terms of party/parties subject matter or property involved, nature of claim, and object or remedy sought.

2.       Locates primary sources (federal, state, and local statutes, and court decisions), and secondary sources (e.g., legal periodicals, yearbooks, casebooks and others).

3.       Uses the case study design to analyze statutes and court decisions, synthesize primary and secondary sources, and to state a definitive position on a legal issue.

 


QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS

An inductive process of organizing data into categories and identifying patterns (relationships) among categories. Data analysis entails several cyclical phases.

§         Analysis that occurs during data collection:

  1. Discovery Analysis:

Strategies include:

-writing observer comments and summaries

-playing with ideas

-exploring the literature

-using metaphors and analogies

  1. Interim Analysis:

Assists in making data collection decisions and identifying emerging topics and recurring meanings.

CODING TOPICS AND CATEGORIES

Typically occurs after data collection.

Developing an organizing system to divide data into segments.

§         Steps:

1.       Get a sense of the whole

2.       Generate topics from the data

3.       Compare duplication of topics

4.       Try out provisional classification system

5.       Refining organizing system

Developing topics into discrete categories.

§         Predetermined categories: derived from research problem, interview guide, literature, and researcher’s prior knowledge.

§         Emic categories: represent insider’s view i.e. terms, actions, and explanations that are distinctive to the settings or people.

§         Etic categories: represent outsider’s views i.e. researcher’s concepts and scientific explanations.

PATTERNS

Finding relationships among categories.

Techniques for pattern-seeking:

§         gauging data trustworthiness

§         using triangulation

§         evaluating discrepant or negative evidence

§         ordering categories for patterns

§         sorting categories for patterns

§         constructing integrative diagrams

§         doing logical cross-analyses

A pattern becomes an explanation only when alternative patterns do not offer reasonable explanations central to the research problem.

PRESENTATION OF QUALITATIVE RESULTS

Qualitative studies:

§         Present context and quotations of participant language as data.

§         Are written in a variety of formats; detailed reporting, descriptive-analytical interpretations, and abstract theoretical discussions.

DATA MANAGEMENT

§         Develop data filing system.

§         Manage data manually (cut-and-file, and file-card techniques), or using the computer (word processing, or text analysis programs).

 


EVALUATION RESEARCH

PURPOSES OF EVALUATION

  • Formative: evaluation designed and used to improve a practice in the early stages of development.
  • Summative: evaluation designed to determine the merit, worth, or both of a developed practice, and to make recommendations regarding its use.

EVALUATION APPROACHES

  • Objectives-oriented: determines degree to which objectives of a practice are attained by a target group.
  • Decision-oriented: supplies information for needs assessment, program planning, program implementation or outcomes.
  • Naturalistic and participant-oriented: uses multimethods to provide an understanding of the divergent values of a practice from the participants’ perspectives.

CRITERIA USED TO JUDGE QUALITY

  • Utility: does the evaluation serve the needs of a given audience?
  • Feasibility: is the evaluation realistic, frugal, and diplomatic?
  • Propriety: has the evaluation been conducted legally and ethically?
  • Accuracy: does the evaluation provide accurate information about the practices studied?

POTENTIAL BENEFITS

  • Systematic implementation of school improvements
  • Cost analyses of large expenditures
  • Assessment of educational effects on students
  • Appraisal of the quality of education
  • Reduction of uncertainty in innovative practices
  • Legitimization of decisions
  • Enlightenment of influentials in decision and policy arenas to better anticipate program and policy issues

LIMITATIONS

  • Failure of studies to improve educational practices and educational policy formulation.
  • Failure to appreciate that research is only one of many influences on educational policies, practices, and decisions.

 


POLICY ANALYSIS

PERSPECTIVE

  • Central concept is choice
  • Uses two approaches:
    • Macro-based on economic and system models
    • Micro-incremental activist, field oriented, and eclectic

CHARACTERISTICS

  • Multidimensional in focus
  • Uses an empirico-inductive research orientation
  • Incorporates past and future
  • Responds to study users
  • Incorporates values

METHODS

  • Focused synthesis
  • Secondary analysis
  • Field experiments
  • Qualitative interviews
  • Surveys
  • Case studies

TYPES OF

  • Cost analysis:
    • cost benefit
    • cost effectiveness
    • cost utility
    • cost feasibility
  • Indicator systems. Functions of:
    • provides information about the operation of a program
    • determines success of a program
    • suggest areas of further study
    • accountability
  • Case Studies
    • multisite studies
    • critical ethnography
    • eclectic case studies

POTENTIAL BENEFITS

  • Systematic implementation of school improvements
  • Cost analyses of large expenditures
  • Assessment of educational effects on students
  • Appraisal of the quality of education
  • Reduction of uncertainty in innovative practices
  • Legitimization of decisions
  • Enlightenment of influentials in decision and policy arenas to better anticipate program and policy issues

LIMITATIONS

  • Failure of studies to improve educational practices and educational policy formulation.
  • Failure to appreciate that research is only one of many influences on educational policies, practices, and decisions.

 


GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH PROPOSALS

FORMS OF RESEARCH COMMUNICATION

  • Research proposal
  • Thesis or dissertation
  • Journal article
  • Evaluation and technical report
  • Paper presentations

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROPOSALS

I.                     Introduction

a.      General statement of the problem

b.      Review of the literature

c.      Specific research question and/or hypotheses

d.      Significance of the proposed study

II.                   Design and Methodology

a.      Subjects

b.      Instrumentation

c.      Procedures

d.      Data Analysis and Presentation

e.      Limitations of the Design

III.                  References

IV.                Appendices

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROPOSALS

Ethnographic

I. Introduction

a.      General statement of the problem

b.      Preliminary literature review

c.      Foreshadowed Problems

d.      Significance of the proposed study

II. Design and Methodology

a.      Site or social network selection

b.      Research role

c.      Purpose sampling strategies

III. References or Bibliography

IV. Appendices

Historical and Legal

I. Introduction

a.      General statement of the problem

b.      Preliminary literature review

c.      Specific research historical questions or legal issues

d.      Significance of the proposed study

II. Design and Methodology

a.      Case study design

b.      Sources: search, selection and criticism

c.      Inductive data analysis

d.      Limitations of design

III. References or Bibliography

IV. Appendices

COMMON WEAKNESSES

  • Problem is trivial and not delimited.
  • Objectives of the study are too general.
  • Methodology is lacking in detail appropriate for the study.

 

 


Filosofía SOBRE el Tutor de Investigación del ESTUDIANTE de Bachillerato

En mi opinión, el profesor-tutor de investigación del estudiante de bachillerato debería

1) poseer formación teórica sobre los fundamentos genéricos de la investigación y los fundamentos específicos de los diferentes tipos de investigación.
2) poseer experiencia práctica en el desarrollo individual, y en grupo, de distintos tipos de investigaciones. 
Si un profesor-tutor no cumple los requisitos 1) y 2), no posee el nivel mínimo de preparación y, por ello, debería ser honesto declinando cualquier invitación de tutorizar a un estudiante !!!

3) ofrecer buena disposición para orientar al estudiante siempre que éste lo requiera, pero no debe participar directamente en la realización de ninguna parte de la investigación del estudiante. Su función ha de ser exclusivamente de asesoramiento.

4) establecer como condición imprescindible para conceder el aprobado al estudiante que éste experimente el proceso básico que caracteriza a un trabajo de investigación competente
 (1. realización del proyecto de investigación, 2. implementación de todo lo planeado en el proyecto de investigación a la práctica, y 3. completar  la memoria de investigación).
Este proceso puede realizarse de forma muy simple y adaptada a las posibilidades de un estudiante de bachillerato que desarrolla su primera experiencia de investigación !
Evidentemente, a nivel universitario el nivel de exigencia de este proceso ha de ser máximo !
Así, el estudiante debería entregar un primer documento "el proyecto de investigación" y,  después de su implementación práctica y análisis, debería entregar un segundo documento "la memoria de investigación".
(es típico entregar un único documento con lo cual difícilmente se puede confiar que ese estudiante haya llevado a cabo un mínimo proceso de investigación; además he visto muchos trabajos a los que se les llama erróneamente "de investigación" que, aunque han supuesto un esfuerzo admirable por parte del estudiante, son sólo una recensión bibliográfica, que en algunos casos se acompaña de unas recolecciones de datos y resultados)

5) 
motivar  la adquisición de la responsabilidad por parte del estudiante del resultado final de su trabajo;

6)  orientar al estudiante sobre alternativas de realización, pero siempre será el estudiante el que decida la opción a seguir (es su trabajo);

7) estar satisfecho de su labor de tutorización valorando exclusivamente las orientaciones y ayudas prestadas al estudiante (por muy mal que los profesores hagamos nuestra función hay estudiantes que son capaces de desarrollar proyectos excelentes y aunque hagamos un gran trabajo de tutorización habrá estudiantes que no conseguirán completar una primera experiencia de investigación de forma satisfactoria). 

8) evitar cualquier tipo de protagonismo en relación al trabajo de investigación del estudiante (por ejemplo, al buen profesor-tutor de investigación de bachillerato no le preocupa que su nombre aparezca relacionado con el trabajo del estudiante, más bien prefiere que no conste).
El protagonismo y responsabilidad en este sentido debería ser exclusividad del
estudiante.

9) colaborar en la formación básica sobre investigación del estudiante durante el primer curso de bachillerato. El espacio ideal para gestionar y desarrollar parte de esta formación son las horas de tutoría.

 

El profesor-tutor de investigación del estudiante de bachillerato (una realidad):
En demasiadas ocasiones encontramos en los institutos de enseñanza secundaria profesores que no poseen ni experiencia ni formación personal en investigación. Algunos conducen al estudiante hacia temas que a ellos les hubiera gustado investigar y participan en el proyecto del estudiante como si se tratara de su propio trabajo, otros compiten con otros profesores pensando que si el estudiante realiza un buen trabajo es consecuencia directa de su inestimable ayuda y así intentan tutorizar a los estudiantes "más avanzados" para supuestamente reforzar su ego e imagen personal, otros tienen a los estudiantes clasificados de forma tan estereotipada que no son capaces de percibir un nefasto trabajo de un estudiante al cual clasifican de "bueno" o un excelente trabajo de otro estudiante al que clasifican de "malo o justo", otros ni se preocupan de realizar sus propias investigaciones para adquirir un poco de experiencia, ni de formarse en la ciencia de la investigación, varios otros van de maestros de la investigación por el simple hecho de llevar muchos años en un centro, aunque en ningún momento de su vida han sido capaces de realizar una sola investigación ni de formarse al respecto (estos son los que más se apresuran a que su nombre conste en el trabajo del estudiante) , otros aún son capaces de pedir ayuda a profesionales en teoría más capacitados para intentar aportar algo positivo al estudiante, otros pocos muestran su humildad y honestidad y reconocen no estar capacitados ni preparados y por ello no tutorizan a ningún estudiante, etc.
En muchas de estas situaciones el bajo nivel del profesorado limita las posibilidades de desarrollo del estudiante
.
Sin embargo, en otras ocasiones he vivenciado como la labor de unos excelentes profesores ha influido muy significativamente en el desarrollo de la capacidad investigadora de los estudiantes.



David Ribera-Nebot

2004


 


ProcesoS Básicos eN el desarrollo de una Investigación

Podemos resumir el proceso de investigación en 3 grandes fases:

1. Realizar el proyecto o propuesta de investigación.
Es un plan detallado donde se plantea el problema a investigar, así como su alcance y limitaciones; se analiza la bibliografía relativa para situar lo diferencial que aporta el problema planteado en un ámbito de la ciencia; y se concretan todos los procesos metodológicos a desarrollar para dar solución a este problema de investigación.

2. Desarrollar y aplicar todo lo planeado en el proyecto o propuesta de investigación a la práctica, realizando sus correspondientes análisis, reflexiones y conclusiones.

3. Redactar la memoria o informe de investigación.
Es la memoria de todo el trabajo desarrollado donde destaca el capítulo de las conclusiones específicas del problema de investigación planteado. Es recomendable y da rigor la inclusión de apartados sobre las aplicaciones prácticas y las futuras líneas de investigación.

Así, debería existir un primer documento:"el proyecto o propuesta de investigación";
y un documento final:"la memoria o informe de investigación".


 


MoDELO DE ÍNDICE DE PROYECTO DE INVESTIGACIÓN

Índice del Proyecto de Investigación de la Tesis Doctoral de Daniel Picó-Benet i David Ribera-Nebot:
(versión 1998)

1. INTRODUCCIÓN

1.1. El problema 
1.2. Relevancia
1.3. Objetivos
1.4. Delimitaciones
1.5. Limitaciones
1.6. Supuestos
1.7. Hipótesis
1.8. Marco teórico
1.8.1. Filosofía de la Educación Física
1.8.2. Las capacidades motrices básicas
1.8.3. Capacidades motrices básicas de 6 a 12 años
1.8.4. Premisas de valoración de capacidades motrices
perceptivas y coordinativas
1.8.5. Definiciones

2. REVISIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA

2.1. Criterios de diseño de tests motrices
2.2. Concepto de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
2.2.1. Esquema corporal
2.2.2. Espacio
2.2.3. Tiempo
2.2.4. Coordinación dinámica general
2.2.5. Coordinación dinámica especial
2.2.6. Conceptos relacionados
2.3. Valoración de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
2.3.1. Tests de percepción del esquema corporal
2.3.2. Tests de percepción espacial
2.3.3. Tests de percepción temporal
2.3.4. Tests de coordinación dinámica general
2.3.5. Tests de coordinación dinámica especial
2.3.6. Otros sistemas de valoración relacionados
2.4. Resúmenes
2.5. Resumen sobre criterios de diseño de tests motrices
2.6. Resumen sobre el concepto de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
2.7. Resumen sobre la valoración de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas

3. METODOLOGÍA

3.1. Participantes
3.2. Material y equipamiento
3.3. Tests
3.4. Diseño del estudio
3.5. Análisis de resultados
3.6. Aspectos administrativos

REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS

Bibliografía sobre el marco teórico
Bibliografía sobre criterios de diseño de tests
Bibliografía sobre el concepto de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
Bibliografía sobre la valoración de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
Bibliografía general


APÉNDICES

A. Hoja de consentimiento informado de participación (niños de 6,9 y 12 años)
B. Hoja de consentimiento informado de participación (expertos)
C. Tests morfo-funcionales
D. Cuestionario de experiencia motriz
E. Cuestionarios de opinión sobre la elección de los grupos de élite

 

 


MoDELO DE ÍNDICE DE MEMORIA DE INVESTIGACIÓN

Índice de la memoria de Investigación de la Tesis Doctoral de Daniel Picó-Benet i David Ribera-Nebot:
(versión 1998)

DEDICATORIA
AGRADECIMIENTOS
ABSTRACT
LISTA DE TABLAS
LISTA DE FIGURAS
TABLA DE CONTENIDOS

I. INTRODUCCIÓN
El problema
Relevancia
Objetivos
Delimitaciones
Limitaciones
Supuestos
Hipótesis
Marco teórico
Filosofía de la Educación Física
Las capacidades motrices básicas
Capacidades motrices básicas de 6 a 12 años
Premisas de valoración de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
Definiciones

II. VALORACIÓN DE CAPACIDADES MOTRICES PERCEPTIVAS Y COORDINATIVAS
Criterios de diseño de tests motrices
Concepto de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
Esquema corporal
Espacio
Tiempo
Coordinación dinámica general
Coordinación dinámica especial
Conceptos relacionados
Valoración de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
Tests de percepción del esquema corporal
Tests de percepción espacial
Tests de percepción temporal
Tests de coordinación dinámica general
Tests de coordinación dinámica especial
Otros sistemas de valoración relacionados
Resúmenes
Resumen sobre criterios de diseño de tests motrices
Resumen sobre el concepto de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
Resumen sobre la valoración de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas

III. METODOLOGÍA
Participantes
Material y equipamiento
Tests
Diseño del estudio
Aspectos administrativos

IV. ANÁLISIS Y DISCUSIÓN DE LOS RESULTADOS
Pre-tests
Fundamentos del proceso de diseño de tests motrices perceptivos y coordinativos
Fundamentos científicos del test motriz de percepción del esquema corporal
Validez
Objetividad
Fiabilidad
Sensibilidad
Fundamentos científicos del test motriz de percepción espacial
Validez
Objetividad
Fiabilidad
Sensibilidad
Fundamentos científicos del test motriz de percepción temporal
Validez
Objetividad
Fiabilidad
Sensibilidad
Fundamentos científicos del test motriz de coordinación dinámica general
Validez
Objetividad
Fiabilidad
Sensibilidad
Fundamentos científicos del test motriz de coordinación dinámica especial
Validez
Objetividad
Fiabilidad
Sensibilidad

V. CONCLUSIONES
Conclusiones sobre el proceso de diseño de los tests perceptivos y coordinativos
Conclusiones sobre el fundamento científico de los tests perceptivos y coordinativos
Conclusiones generales

VI. APORTACIONES-DESCUBRIMIENTOS
Nomenclatura específica de las capacidades motrices en el ámbito de la Educación Motriz
Modelo metodológico de creación de tests motrices
Selección de criterios para el diseño de tests motrices
Cuadros resumen sobre el concepto de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
Cuadros resumen sobre los tests motrices perceptivos y coordinativos
Tests motrices perceptivos y coordinativos

VII. IMPLEMENTACIONES PRÁCTICAS Y RECOMENDACIONES
Aplicaciones a la investigación de las capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
Aplicaciones a la evaluación de la educación motriz en la escuela
Aplicaciones al control de la evolución motriz en la iniciación deportiva
Aplicaciones a la evaluación del estado de salud en diferentes edades
Aplicaciones a la evaluación motriz en la selección de profesional especializado
Aplicaciones a la mejora de los programas de educación motriz

VIII. RESUMEN/CONCLUSIÓN

REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS
Bibliografía sobre el marco teórico
Bibliografía sobre criterios de diseño de tests
Bibliografía sobre el concepto de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
Bibliografía sobre la valoración de capacidades motrices perceptivas y coordinativas
Bibliografía general

APÉNDICES
A. Resultados de los pre-tests
B. Hojas de consentimiento informado de participación (niños 6,9 y 12 años)
C. Hojas de consentimiento informado de participación (expertos)
D. Registro de resultados de los tests morfo-funcionales
E. Cuestionarios de experiencia motriz
F. Cuestionarios de opinión sobre la elección de los grupos de élite.
G. Registro videográfico de los tests motrices perceptivos y coordinativos
H. Registro de resultados de los tests motrices perceptivos y coordinativos
I. Registro de las evaluaciones de los expertos
J. DVD con la descripción de los tests

ANEXOS

 

 

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